c. 17th century BCE The period of the Jewish patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac,Jacob. c. 1250-10 BCE The Exodus of the Jews from Egypt, wandering in the desert of Sinai, and the conquest of Canaan under Joshua. c. 1020-1004 BCE King Saul. Establishment of the Israelite kingdom. c. 1004-965 BCE King David. Consolidation and expansion of the kingdom. c. 961-928 BCE King Solomon. The Temple is built in Jerusalem. c. 928 BCE Division of the state and the establishment of kingdoms of Judah and Israel. c. 722 BCE Assyrian conquest of Samaria, kingdom of Israel; a large number of Jews are exiled. c. 586 BCE Jerusalem is conquered, and the Temple is destroyed. Mass deportation of Jews to the Babylonian captivity. c. 520-515 BCE The Temple is rebuilt. c. 167-160 BCE Hasmonean rebellion under Judah Maccabee. 164 BCE Jerusalem is liberated, and the Temple is rededicated. 37-4 BCE Reign of Herod. c. 19 BCE The Temple is rebuilt. AD/CE 66 Jewish revolt against Rome. 70 Siege of Jerusalem; destruction of the Temple by Romans. Direct Roman rule is imposed until 395. Beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. 73 Fall of Masada. 132-35 Bar Kochba War. 135 Jews are expelled from "Palestine," a name given to Judea by Rome. 395-638 Byzantine rule. 638 Arab Muslim armies conquer Jerusalem. c. 636-1072 Arab rule. 1072-99 Seljuq rule. 1099 Jerusalem captured by the Crusaders. 1099-1291 Crusader rule with interruptions. 1187 Jerusalem is captured by Saladin. 1291-1516 Mameluke rule. c. 1517-1917 Ottoman Turkish rule. 1878 Petah Tikva is founded. 1882-1903 The First Aliya. 1882 Hibbat Zion Movement started. Rishon Le-Zion is founded. 1894 Dreyfus trial in France. Publication of Der Judenstaat by Theodor Herzl. The first Zionist Congress is held in Basle, Switzerland. World Zionist Organization is founded. 1901 The Jewish National Fund is established. 1904 Herzl dies. 1904-14 The Second Aliya. 1909 Kibbutz Degania is founded. Tel Aviv is established. 1917 The British army captures Jerusalem. 2 November: The Balfour Declaration is issued. 1919-23 The Third Aliya. The British mandate over Palestine is granted at San Remo, although it is not formalized until 1922. Herbert Samuel is appointed high commissioner for Palestine. Histadrut and Hagana are founded. Moshav Nahalal is founded. The Churchill White Paper. July: The Palestine mandate is ratified by the League of Nations. 1924-28 The Fourth Aliya. 1925 Hebrew University is inaugurated on Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem. 1929 Arab riots take place in Jerusalem, and massacres occur in Hebron and Safed. 1929-39 The Fifth Aliya. 1935 The Revisionist movement, headed by Vladimir Ze'ev Jabotin-sky, secedes from the World Zionist Organization and establishes the New Zionist Organization. 1937 The Peel Commission Report; the first proposal to partition Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. 1939 The British White Paper further limits Jewish immigration to Palestine and Zionist land purchases. 1942 May: The Biltmore Program is promulgated by Zionists at a conference in New York. November: The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry is established. 22 July: The British headquarters in King David Hotel, Jerusalem, is bombed. 25 February: Great Britain turns the Palestine issue over to the United Nations (UN). The UN Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) examines the problem and recommends solutions. 29 November: The UN General Assembly (UNGA) adopts a resolution (UNGA Resolution 181 [II]) providing for an independent Jewish state in Palestine to be united economically with an independent Arab state. An international regime is to be established in Jerusalem. The United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) support the partition plan. December: Jewish-Arab communal warfare in Palestine intensifies after the adoption of the partition plan. 14 May: Proclamation of the independence of the state of Israel. The United States extends de facto recognition. Ben-Gurion becomes the first prime minister of Israel. 15 May: The British mandate for Palestine is terminated; Arab armies of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria invade, and the first Arab-Israeli war (Israel's war of independence) officially begins. The United States and the USSR recognize Israel. 11 June: The first truce in Arab-Israeli hostilities begins. 8 July: The truce ends. 18 July: The second truce begins. 15 October: The truce ends. 11 December: The UNGA adopts Resolution 194. 25 January: The election for the first Knesset. 14 February: The first Knesset opens in Jerusalem. 16 February: Chaim Weizmann is elected first president of Israel. 24 February: Armistice Agreement with Egypt is achieved. 8 March: First session of the Knesset begins in Tel Aviv. 10 March: The first regular government is established under David Ben-Gurion as prime minister. 23 March: The Armistice Agreement with Lebanon. 3 April: The Armistice Agreement with Jordan. 11 May: Israel becomes a member of the UN. 20 July: The Armistice Agreement with Syria. 12 September: The Compulsory Education Law is passed. 2 November: The Weizmann Institute of Science is inaugurated. December: King Abdullah annexes that part of Palestine occupied by the Arab Legion (West Bank) and East Jerusalem. (Annexation is ratified by the Jordanian parliament in April 1950.) 13 December: The resolution to transfer the Knesset and the government to Jerusalem is adopted. 26 December: The Knesset session resumes in Jerusalem. January: Egyptians occupy the islands of Tiran and Sanafir at the southern entrance to the Gulf of Aqaba, thus blocking passage to the Israeli port of Eilat. 4 January: The Knesset ratifies a government statement opposing the internationalization of Jerusalem. 25 May: The Tripartite Declaration (Britain, France, the United States) regulates arms sales to the Middle East. 13 June: The Knesset adopts a resolution on the manner in which a constitution for the state is to be devised. July: The beginning of large-scale immigration to Israel from Iraq. 5 July: The Law of Return, confirming the right of every Jew to settle in Israel, is passed by the Knesset. 24 September: The airlift of Jews from Yemen to Israel is concluded. March: Israel launches a three-year plan to drain the Huleh swamps for irrigation and for the generation of hydroelectric power. July: The airlift of Jews from Iraq to Israel is completed. 20 July: King Abdullah of Jordan is assassinated, ostensibly because of negotiations with Israel. 30 July: The election for the second Knesset. 14 August: The 23rd Zionist Congress opens in Jerusalem. 1 September: The UN Security Council (UNSC) condemns Egyptian anti-Israel blockade in the Suez Canal. 23 July: The Free Officers coup ousts King Farouk of Egypt. 9 November: President Chaim Weizmann dies. 8 December: Yitzhak Ben Zvi is elected the second president of Israel. 2 September: Israel initiates the second phase of the Jordan Development Plan. 14 October: Israel Defense Forces (IDF) troops carry out a reprisal raid against the Jordanian village of Kibya. 5 November: Ben-Gurion resigns as prime minister. Moshe Sharett becomes prime minister. January: Moshe Dayan becomes the chief of staff of IDF. Gamal Abdul Nasser becomes prime minister and president of Egypt. Lavon Affair occurs. 2 June: Hebrew University dedicates its new campus in Jerusalem. 19 July: The Yarkon-Negev pipeline, built to irrigate 25,000 acres in the Negev, is opened. 28 September: Egypt seizes the Bat Galim, an Israel flag merchant vessel, at Suez when it attempts to transit the Suez Canal, and its crew is imprisoned. 12 October: Thirteen Jews are indicted in Egypt on charges of espionage. 28 February: Israel raids the Gaza Strip in retaliation for guerrilla activity against Israel. 26 July: The election for the third Knesset. 15 August: The third Knesset opens. David Ben-Gurion becomes prime minister. 27 September: President Nasser of Egypt signs an agreement with Czechoslovakia to obtain vast quantities of arms. 3 October: Czechoslovakia announces confirmation of an arms deal with Egypt. Later it is revealed to be a Soviet-Egyptian transaction. November: Ben-Gurion again becomes prime minister of Israel. 24 April: The 24th Zionist Congress opens in Jerusalem. 26 July: Egyptian president Nasser announces the nationalization of the Suez Canal Company. 29 October: Israel moves against Egyptian fe-dayeen bases and prepares for attack in the Sinai Peninsula to eliminate commando bases. Israel invades Sinai. The Sinai/Suez War begins. 5 November: France and Great Britain invade the Suez Canal Zone. 6 November: Israel announces acceptance of a cease-fire in the Sinai Peninsula. 7 November: Egypt, France, and Britain accept the ceasefire. 22 December: Anglo-French troops complete their withdrawal from the Suez Canal Zone. Early March: Israel evacuates Sinai and the Gaza Strip. The UN Emergency Force (UNEF) is established. 22 January: Israel evacuates all of Sinai except Gaza and Sharm el-Sheikh. 1 March: Israel agrees to evacuate Gaza and Sharm el-Sheikh. 8 March: UNEF forces take over from Israel the garrisoning of Sharm el-Sheikh and the administration of the Gaza Strip. 25 March: The first large vessel arrives at the Israeli port of Eilat. 29 March: Convoy traffic resumes through the Suez Canal. 31 October: The ARAD Zone Research Institute opens in Beersheba. 16 January: The Beersheba-Eilat highway, Israel's "dry-land Suez Canal," opens. February: The United Arab Republic (UAR) of Egypt and Syria is established. 4 December: The cornerstone of the new Knesset building is laid. 3 November: The election for the fourth Knesset. 18 November: Israeli finance minister Levi Eshkol announces that diversion of water from the Jordan River for irrigation purposes has become a priority project for Israel. 1 February: Israeli and Syrian forces clash in the demilitarized zone. March: Prime Minister Ben-Gurion visits the United States and Great Britain. 26 April: Israel's National Water Council approves a plan for laying a giant conduit to carry water from the Sea of Galilee to southern Israel. 23 May: Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann is kidnapped from Argentina for trial in Israel. 1961 11 April: The Eichmann trial opens in Jerusalem. 5 July: Israel launches its first meteorological space rocket. 20 July: The cornerstone of the deep seaport of Ashdod is laid. The millionth immigrant since the establishment of the state arrives. 15 August: The election for the fifth Knesset. 31 May: Adolf Eichmann is executed. 30 June: Ten years of activities of the United States Operations Mission in Israel are completed. 27 September: The Foreign Ministry announces that the United States has agreed to supply Israel with Hawk ground-to-air missiles for defense, the first direct sale of significant American weapons to Israel. 30 October: Yitzhak Ben Zvi is reelected for a third term as president of Israel. 20 March: The Knesset calls upon the Bonn government to terminate the activities of German scientists in Egypt. 18 April: Work begins on the construction of Carmiel, a new town in Galilee. 23 April: President Yitzhak Ben Zvi dies. 21 May: Shneur Zalman Shazar is elected by the Knesset as Israel's third president. 16 June: David Ben-Gurion resigns from his post as prime minister and minister of defense. 26 June: A new government, with Levi Eshkol as prime minister, takes office. 11 July: Shalom, Israel's largest passenger liner, is launched in France. 21 October: Prime Minister Levi Eshkol announces far-reaching relaxations of military government restrictions on Israel's Arab citizens. January: The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is created in Cairo. Ahmed Shukairi becomes its first chairman. 1 January: Yitzhak Rabin becomes chief of staff of the IDF. 5 January: Pope Paul VI begins a pilgrimage to Christian sites in the Holy Land. June: National Water Carrier begins operation. 1 January: Fatah is established and launches its first attack against Israel. 2 November: The election for the sixth Knesset. January: Golda Meir resigns as foreign minister and is succeeded by Abba Eban. 30 August: The Knesset building is formally opened. 12 November: An Israeli patrol car detonates a land mine near the Jordan frontier, killing three soldiers and injuring six. Israel complains to the UNSC. 13 November: Israeli forces launch an attack on the Jordanian village of es-Samu in response to the killing of Israelis. 1967 7 April: During an air clash, six Syrian MIG 21s are shot down by Israeli planes. 15 May: The UAR puts its forces on a state of alert and begins extensive redeployment of military units. 18 May: The UAR asks the UN to remove UNEF from the Egypt-Israel armistice line, and the UN complies. Israel announces that it is taking "appropriate measures" in response to the UAR buildup in the Sinai. 22-23 May: UAR president Nasser announces an Egyptian blockade of the Gulf of Aqaba, cutting off Israel's access to the Red Sea through the port of Eilat. 1 June: Prime Minister Levi Eshkol forms a broadly based "Government of National Unity" in which former chief of staff Moshe Dayan becomes minister of defense. 5 June: Hostilities commence between Israel and the Arab states in the Six-Day War. 6 June: The UAR closes the Suez Canal to all shipping. The UAR breaks relations with the United States over allegations of U.S. support for Israel in the war. 7 June: Jordanian and Israeli governments accept the UN call for a ceasefire. At the conclusion of hostilities, the Israelis establish themselves at the Jordan River and have control of the West Bank. 8 June: The ceasefire goes into effect between the UAR and Israel. Israeli forces occupy the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. 10 June: The USSR breaks diplomatic relations with Israel. Other Soviet-bloc European countries, except Romania, follow suit. 11 June: A cease-fire goes into effect between Israel and Syria. The Israelis have penetrated beyond the former demarcation line, establishing themselves on the Golan Heights. 12 June: In a policy speech to the Knesset, Israeli prime minister Levi Eshkol declares that Israel could not return to the prewar situation and demands that the Arabs make peace with Israel. 28 June: The Israeli minister of the interior announces new municipal boundaries for Jerusalem in accordance with enabling legislation passed the previous day by the Knesset; former Jordanian-held East Jerusalem is included within the new municipal jurisdiction. August-September: The Arab summit meeting at Khartoum, Sudan, declares no recognition, no negotiation, and no peace with Israel. 21 October: The Israeli destroyer Eilat is sunk by UAR patrol boats off the Sinai coast. In reprisal, on 24 October, Israel shells the Suez Canal and its oil refineries. 22 November: The UNSC adopts Resolution 242. December: The mission of Gunnar Jarring to implement UNSC Resolution 242 begins. 27 January: The Israeli submarine Dakar disappears in the Mediterranean Sea. 26 December: Arab fedayeen who had just arrived from Beirut attack an El Al plane at an Athens airport. 28 December: Israeli helicopter-borne commandos attack aircraft at a Beirut airport in retaliation for Palestinian aircraft hijacking and other aircraft attacks. February: Yasser Arafat becomes head of the PLO (chairman of PLO executive committee). 26 February: Levi Eshkol dies. Early March: The War of Attrition begins along the Suez Canal. 7 March: Golda Meir becomes prime minister. 28 October: The election for the seventh Knesset. January: The Bar-Lev Line is completed. 7 August: The War of Attrition along the Suez Canal is ended by a cease-fire. September: The Jordan civil war between armed forces and the PLO. The PLO is ousted from Jordan by King Hussein's army. 28 September: Nasser dies. Anwar Sadat becomes president of Egypt. 30 May: Japanese gunmen, acting for the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), shoot up Lod Airport. 5 September: The Munich Olympics massacre of Israeli athletes by Black September terrorists. 10 April: Ephraim (Katchalski) Katzir is elected the fourth president of Israel. 6 October: The Yom Kippur or Ramadan War begins. 22 October: UNSC Resolution 338 is adopted. November: The Agranat Commission is established. 11 November: The Israel-Egypt cease-fire is signed at kilometer 101. 21 December: The Geneva Peace Conference is convened. 31 December: The election for the eighth Knesset. 17 January: The Egypt-Israel Disengagement Agreement is signed at kilometer 101. 10 April: Golda Meir resigns. 22 April: Yitzhak Rabin becomes prime minister. 15 May: Palestinian infiltrators hold schoolchildren hostage in Maalot; 21 children are killed. 31 May: Israel and Syria sign a disengagement agreement in Geneva. 28 October: The Arab League summit meeting at Rabat, Morocco, declares the PLO as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people." 13 November: Yasser Arafat addresses the UNGA; the PLO is later granted observer status. 4 September: Egypt and Israel sign the Sinai II disengagement agreement. 10 November: The UNGA adopts Resolution 3379 declaring Zionism to be a form of racism. 4 July: During Operation Entebbe, Israeli commandos free hostages at Entebbe Airport, Uganda. April: Yitzhak Rabin resigns as prime minister. Shimon Peres is selected as Labor Party leader. 17 May: The election for the ninth Knesset. Likud, under the leadership of Menachem Begin, emerges as the largest party. 21 June: Begin forms the government coalition, with himself as prime minister, the first non-Labor government in Israel's history. November: President Anwar Sadat of Egypt announces to the Egyptian National Assembly his willingness to visit Israel to discuss peace; the Knesset overwhelmingly approves an invitation to Sadat. Sadat arrives in Jerusalem and addresses the Israeli Knesset. Negotiations begin. 25-26 December: Begin meets Sadat in Ismailia, Egypt. March: Following an attack on an Israeli bus, Israel launches (on 14 March) Operation Litani against Palestinian bases in Lebanon. 19 April: Yitzhak Navon is elected the fifth president of Israel. May: The U.S. Congress approves a weapons package for Israel, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. 13 June: Israel completes the withdrawal of its armed forces from Lebanon, and the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) takes up positions there. 18-19 June: The Leeds Castle Conference takes place. 5-17 September: Sadat, Begin, and U.S. president Jimmy Carter meet at a summit at Camp David, Maryland. The Camp David Accords are signed on the 17th at the White House in Washington, DC. 12 October: Egypt and Israel begin peace negotiations at the Blair House in Washington to implement the Camp David Accords. 10 December: The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded jointly to Sadat and Begin. 26 March: The Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty is signed in Washington. 30 April: The first Israeli freighter passes through the Suez Canal. 25 May: Israel begins a withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula; Egypt and Israel begin a discussion of autonomy issues. October: Moshe Dayan resigns as foreign minister. February: Egypt and Israel exchange ambassadors. March: Yitzhak Shamir is appointed foreign minister of Israel. 30 July: The Knesset adopts a basic law reaffirming the united Jerusalem as Israel's capital. 7 June: Israel destroys the Iraqi Osirak nuclear reactor near Baghdad. 30 June: The election for the 10th Knesset. Likud secures the largest number of seats. A Begin coalition government secures a vote of confidence from the Knesset in August. 6 October: President Sadat of Egypt is assassinated. 30 November: The United States and Israel sign a memorandum of understanding on strategic cooperation. 14 December: Israel extends its "law and jurisdiction" to the Golan Heights. 25 April: Israel completes its withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula and returns it to Egypt. 6 June: The War in Lebanon (Operation Peace for Galilee) begins. Israel invades Lebanon in an attempt to destroy PLO bases. July-August: The Israeli siege of Beirut. September: Bashir Gemayel, president-elect of Lebanon, is assassinated. Massacres take place at the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps. The Kahan Commission is established to inquire into the massacres. 1 September: U.S. president Ronald Reagan outlines his "fresh start" initiative for peace in the Middle East. February: The Kahan Commission of Inquiry reports its findings. Ariel Sharon resigns as defense minister and is replaced by Moshe Arens. 22 March: Chaim Herzog is elected Israel's sixth president. 17 May: Israel and Lebanon sign an agreement concluded with the assistance of U.S. secretary of state George Shultz. 16 September: Men-achem Begin resigns as prime minister. October: Yitzhak Shamir forms a new government and takes office as prime minister. 5 March: Lebanon abrogates the 17 May 1983 agreement with Israel. 23 July: The election for the 11th Knesset. September: The Government of National Unity is formed, with Shimon Peres (Labor) as prime minister and Yitzhak Shamir (Likud) as alternate prime minister and foreign minister. The mass immigration of Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) to Israel in Operation Moses takes place. January: Israel announces its intent to withdraw unilaterally from Lebanon. July: The IDF completes its withdrawal from Lebanon. A security zone is established in southern Lebanon astride the Israeli-Lebanese frontier. October: The Achille Lauro incident. July: Prime Minister Shimon Peres visits King Hassan II in Morocco. 20 October: The Government of National Unity rotation shifts Shamir to the position of prime minister and Peres to the post of foreign minister. 8 December: An Israeli truck hits a Palestinian car in Gaza, killing four people. Anti-Israeli violence erupts throughout Gaza. 9 December: An Arab uprising (intifada) begins in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, challenging Israel's authority in the territories. February: Hamas is created in Gaza. September: Israel launches a space satellite. 29 September: Taba is awarded to Egypt by an international arbitration panel. 1 November: The election for the 12th Knesset. 15 November: The Palestine National Council (PNC), meeting in Algiers, declares an independent Palestinian state and issues ambiguous statements concerning acceptance of UNSC Resolutions 242 and 338. 13 December: Arafat, at a press conference, recognizes Israel's right to exist, accepts UNSC Resolutions 242 and 338, and renounces terrorism. The United States announces that it will begin a dialogue with the PLO in Tunis. 22 December: Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir presents his coalition government to the Knesset. It is approved by a vote of 84 to 19, with 3 abstentions. 15 March: Egypt takes control of Taba. 14 May: The cabinet formally approves the "Shamir Plan" peace initiative. 28 July: An Israeli commando team seizes Sheik Abdul Karim Obeid, a leading figure of Hezbollah, in Lebanon. January: Soviet Jews begin to arrive in Israel in large numbers. 13 March: Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir dismisses Deputy Prime Minister Shimon Peres from the government, and the other Labor Party cabinet ministers resign. 15 March: The Knesset passes a motion of no confidence in the government led by Shamir by a vote of 60 to 55. 26 April: Labor Party leader Shimon Peres returns the mandate to form a government to President Chaim Herzog after failing in his efforts. 27 April: Acting prime minister Yitzhak Shamir accepts the mandate to form a new government. 11 June: The Knesset approves Yitzhak Shamir's government composed of Likud and right-wing and religious parties. 20 June: President George H. W. Bush suspends the U.S. dialogue with the PLO. 30 September: Consular relations are reestablished between Israel and the USSR. 5 November: Rabbi Meir Kahane, leader of the Kach Party, is assassinated in New York. 16 November: Agudat Israel joins the Likud-led coalition government of Prime Minister Shamir. 25 November: The cabinet approves General Ehud Barak to replace Lieutenant General Dan Shomron as chief of staff of the IDF when Shomron's tenure ends in April 1991. 16 January: Allied forces launch a massive air campaign against Iraq (Operation Desert Storm). In the ensuing conflict, Iraq launches Scud missiles against Israel and Saudi Arabia. 3 February: Rehavam Zeevi of Moledet joins the cabinet as a minister without portfolio. 18 October: Israel and the USSR restore diplomatic relations. 30 October: A peace conference organized by the United States and the USSR convenes in Madrid, Spain. 10 December: The beginning of the Washington rounds of bilateral Arab-Israeli negotiations. 16 December: The UNGA repeals the "Zionism is Racism" resolution. 24 January: Israel and the People's Republic of China establish diplomatic relations. 29 January: India announces it will establish formal diplomatic relations with Israel. 17 March: Thirty are killed and more than 200 wounded in a bombing of the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina. 18 March: The Knesset approves an electoral reform that includes the direct election of the prime minister. May: The first round of meetings of multilateral working groups is established at Moscow conference. June: Israel and South Korea renew diplomatic relations. 23 June: The election for the 13th Knesset. The Israel Labor Party wins under the leadership of Yitzhak Rabin. 13 July: Rabin's coalition with Meretz and Shas assumes power, with Rabin serving as prime minister and defense minister and Shimon Peres as foreign minister and deputy prime minister. August: Israel and the Vatican establish a joint commission to examine the normalization of relations. September-November: The second round of multilateral peace talks, the first since the Israeli election; some progress is reported despite continued disputes over Palestinian representation. 18 September: Israel and India sign an industrial cooperation agreement. 8 October: Israel withdraws its previous objection to the participation of Palestinians from outside the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and Jerusalem in multilateral peace talks, but it continues to bar PLO and PNC members. 4 December: Israeli academic Yair Hirschfeld and the PLO's Ahmed Suleiman Karia (Abu Alaa) begin backchannel discussions in Europe. 17 December: Israel orders the temporary expulsion to Lebanon of some 415 Muslim extremists in response to terrorist attacks on Israeli soldiers. 1993 January-February: Deputy Foreign Minister Yossi Beilin discloses the existence of Oslo talks to Peres, who in turn informs Rabin. Oslo negotiators begin drafting a declaration of principles for the interim Israel-PLO agreement. 19 January: The Knesset repeals legislation prohibiting PLO contacts. 11 March: In meeting with Rabin, U.S. president William J. Clinton pledges to "minimize risks" of peace for Israel. Rabin reportedly accedes to the U.S. request to permit PLO activist Faisal Hus-seini to join the Palestinian delegation to bilateral talks in Washington. 23 March: Benjamin Netanyahu is elected leader of the Likud Party, replacing Yitzhak Shamir. 24 March: Ezer Weizman is elected the seventh president of Israel. May: Rabin agrees to upgrade the Oslo talks to official level, sending the Foreign Ministry director general Uriel Savir to negotiate on Israel's behalf and authorizing the Foreign Ministry legal expert Yoel Zinger to draft the Declaration of Principles (DOP). 25 July: Israel launches the bombardment of Hezbollah bases in southern Lebanon (Operation Accountability); the United States brokers a cease-fire and agreement between Israel and Lebanon (acting on Hezbollah's behalf) to avoid firing on the other's civilian populations. 20 August: Israeli and PLO officials initial the DOP in Oslo. 30 August: The Israel cabinet approves the DOP; two ministers (Arye Deri of Shas and Labor's Shimon Shitreet) abstain from the cabinet vote. 9 September: Rabin and Arafat exchange letters of mutual recognition on behalf of Israel and the PLO. September: The Israel-PLO DOP is signed by Peres and the PLO's Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) on the White House lawn in Washington. Prime Minister Rabin and PLO leader Arafat shake hands. 14 September: Israel and Jordan sign the Common Agenda for future negotiations. Rabin meets with King Hassan II in Morocco. 23 September: The Knesset approves the DOP by a vote of 61 to 50, with 8 abstentions. October: Rabin visits Indonesia, the world's largest Muslim country. 2 November: Jerusalem Mayor Teddy Kollek is defeated by Likud's Ehud Olmert in a municipal election. December: The third round of Israeli-Palestinian talks on implementing the Oslo Accords occurs in Cairo, Oslo, and Paris. December: By vote of 155 to 3 (Iran, Syria, and Lebanon) and 1 abstention (Libya), the UNGA adopts a resolution expressing "full support" for the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. 29 December: Peres and Mah-moud Abbas conclude a draft agreement on security arrangements for Gaza and Jericho border crossings. 30 December: Israel and the Vatican sign a basic agreement to establish diplomatic ties. 1994 January: Israel, Jordan, and Egypt agree on a joint program to control maritime pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba. 9 February: Peres and Arafat sign a partial agreement on implementing the Gaza-Jericho agreement. 25 February: Jewish settler Baruch Goldstein kills 29 Palestinian worshipers and wounds more than 100 others in Hebron's Tomb of the Patriarchs/Ibrahim Mosque in Hebron. A commission of inquiry is set up under Supreme Court president Meir Shamgar. 28 March: Six Palestinian members of Al Fatah, the PLO faction led by Yasser Arafat, are shot dead by undercover Israeli troops in Jabaliya in the occupied Gaza Strip. 31 March: Israel and the PLO agree on the Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH). 27 April: Israel and China sign a memorandum of understanding on energy. 29 April: The Israel-PLO economic cooperation agreement is signed in Paris. 4 May: Israel and the PLO sign the Cairo agreement for establishing self-rule in the Gaza Strip and Jericho. 13 May: The IDF withdraws from Jericho, transferring authority to the PLO. 18 May: The IDF completes the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip (except for security positions near several small settlements in the north); joint Israeli-Palestinian security patrols in Gaza begin on 21 May. 3 June: Israel and Turkey sign a bilateral trade agreement. 12 June: The Arrow 2 interceptor missile system is successfully tested. 16 June: Israel and the Vatican establish full diplomatic relations. 1 July: Arafat visits the Gaza Strip for the first time in 27 years. 18 July: Ninety-five are killed and hundreds wounded in the bombing of Jewish community offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina. 25 July: The Washington Declaration on Israel-Jordan peace is signed; Rabin and King Hussein address a joint session of the U.S. Congress. 3 August: The Knesset, by vote of 77 to 9, with 4 abstentions, approves a resolution reaffirming Jerusalem's status as the "eternal capital of Israel, and Israel alone." 8 August: Prime Minister Rabin visits King Hussein in Jordan in the first official visit to Jordan by an Israeli leader. 29 August: The "early empowerment" agreement on the transfer of civilian authority in parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip is signed. 1 September: Israel and Morocco sign an agreement to open liaison offices in Tel Aviv and Rabat. 1 October: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) announces the suspension of secondary and tertiary applications of a boycott of Israel. 9 October: IDF soldier Nahshon Waxman is kidnapped by a Hamas cell demanding the release of comrades in Israeli prisons. 14 October: Waxman is killed during a failed Israeli rescue attempt. An Israeli officer and three Hamas kidnappers also die. 17 October: Israel and Jordan initial a peace treaty in Amman, Jordan. 26 October: Israel and Jordan sign a peace treaty; King Hussein subsequently makes his first official visit to Israel, where he and Rabin formally exchange copies of the treaty. 3 November: Tansu Ciller makes the first visit by a Turkish prime minister to Israel. 27 November: Israel and Jordan establish diplomatic relations. December: IDF chief of staff Ehud Barak and his Syrian counterpart, Hik-mat Shihabi, meet in Washington to discuss security arrangements for the Golan Heights and related matters. 10 December: Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres, and Yasser Arafat receive the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway. 11 December: Israel and Jordan open their respective embassies in Amman and Tel Aviv. 21 December: Israel and India sign a wide-ranging trade agreement. 26 December: Rabin becomes first Israeli prime minister to visit Oman. The Knesset, by a vote of 56 to 6 (with 32 abstentions), passes the Gaza/Jericho Agreement Implementation Law (limiting of activities), barring any PLO or Palestinian Authority (PA) political activity in eastern Jerusalem and the rest of Israel and areas of the West Bank and Gaza still under Israeli control. 1995 2 February: Leaders of Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and the PLO hold a summit meeting in Cairo, affirming cooperation against terrorism. 7-8 February: Officials from the United States, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and the PLO meet in Taba, Egypt, and sign a joint declaration calling for an end to the boycott of Israel. 12 February: Experts from the United States, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and the PLO meet in Washington to coordinate the fight against terrorism. 14 March: Israel and Syria agree to resume direct peace talks involving Israel's ambassador to Washington, Itamar Rabinovich, and his Syrian counterpart, Walid al-Moualem. April: The Ofek (Horizon) 3 satellite is launched by Israel. 30 July: The successful test flight of the Arrow 2 interceptor missile. 11 August: Israeli and Palestinian delegations meet in Taba, Egypt, and reach a partial agreement on IDF redeployment in the West Bank. 19 September: Tomiichi Murayama makes the first visit by a Japanese prime minister to Israel. 28 September: The Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip (Oslo II) is signed in Washington. 30 September: Peres and Omani foreign minister Yousuf Bin Alawi agree to establish interest offices in Muscat and Tel Aviv and to work toward economic and technical cooperation. 6 October: A paramilitary Egyptian police officer kills seven Israeli tourists at the Egyptian Red Sea resort of Ras Burka. 24 October: The U.S. Congress passes the Jerusalem Embassy Relocation Act, requiring the transfer of the embassy to Jerusalem by May 1999. 1 November: Yossi Beilin and Mahmoud Abbas sign the "document of understanding" on terms of permanent status arrangements between Israel and the PA. 4 November: Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by Yigal Amir in Tel Aviv; Peres becomes the interim prime minister; an inquiry headed by retired Supreme Court president Meir Shamgar finds a serious lapse in security around Rabin but no evidence of conspiracy. 20 November: The Treaty of Association with European Union (EU) is signed, institutionalizing political relations at ministerial level, expanding the scope of EU-Israel free trade zone, and granting Israel membership in EU's research and development program. The treaty is ratified by the European Parliament in February 1996. 22 November: The Knesset votes its confidence in the new government of Shimon Peres by a vote of 62 to 8, with 32 abstentions. 4 December: Amir Peretz is chosen as chairman of Histadrut. 11 December: Peres and Clinton meet in Washington, the first time since Rabin's assassination. 11-27 December: The IDF completes the withdrawal from six major West Bank cities (Bethlehem, Jenin, Nablus, Qalqilya, Ramallah, and Tulkarem). 27 December: Israelis and Syrians meet at Wye Plantation in Maryland. 1996 5 January: The "engineer," Yahya Ayash, mastermind of the Hamas suicide bombings, is killed in Gaza, allegedly by Israeli agents. 20 January: Arabs in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank elect the first Palestinian Legislative Council; candidates affiliated with Fatah and pro-Arafat independents win 67 of 88 seats (75 percent), with Yasser Arafat taking 88.1 percent in the election for president. 27 January: Israel and Oman sign an agreement to open liaison offices in Muscat and Tel Aviv. 12 February: Arafat is sworn in as president of PA. 20 February: David Levy announces the establishment of his new political party, Gesher (Bridge). 7 March: The first meeting of the Palestinian Legislative Council in Gaza. 13 March: The "Summit of the Peacemakers" at Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. 14-16 April: Thirteen are wounded by Katyusha rockets fired into northern Galilee from Hezbollah bases in Lebanon. In retaliation, Israel launches an air and missile barrage (Operation Grapes of Wrath) to push Hezbollah out of firing range of the Galilee and south Lebanon security zone. 18 April: An IDF bombardment of suspected Hezbollah missile emplacements results in the death of 11 Lebanese civilians in the village of Nabatiya al-Fawqa and 102 at a UN refugee base at Kfar Qana; Israel is widely condemned for these deaths. 22 April: The 21st Palestinian National Council meeting in Gaza resolves that the PLO charter is "hereby amended by canceling the articles that are contrary to the letters exchanged between the PLO and the Government of Israel 9-10 September 1993" and instructs its legal committee to present a redrafted charter within six months. Prime Minister Peres declares that the PLO has fulfilled its obligation to change the charter; others disagree with that assessment. 5-6 May: The first session of the Israel-PLO permanent status talks convenes at Taba, Egypt. 29 May: In the first direct election of the prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu defeats Shimon Peres by less than 1 percent (50.4 percent to 49.5 percent), though among Jewish voters, there is an 11 percent differential (55.5 percent to 44.5 percent). A concurrent election of the 14th Knesset is held. 2 June: Major General Danny Yatom becomes head of the Mossad. 17 June: A new 6-party governing coalition (holding 66 of 120 seats) is presented to the Knesset. 22-23 June: Arab leaders threaten to reconsider relations with Israel if the new government forsakes the land-for-peace formula; they also reiterate their demand for Israel's withdrawal from "all the Arab territory it captured in the 1967 war, including East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, as well as from South Lebanon [Israel] must also dismantle settlements and let the Palestinians set up an independent Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital." 4 September: Netanyahu and Arafat meet for the first time. 24-30 September: The Israeli cabinet approves the opening of a new exit to an existing ancient tunnel running beneath the Western Wall; Palestinian rioting ensues, resulting in 59 Arab and 15 Israeli deaths. 1-2 October: Netanyahu and Arafat join King Hussein and U.S. President William J. (Bill) Clinton at a mini summit in Washington; Israeli and Palestinian leaders reaffirm their commitment to abide by obligations undertaken in the Oslo Accords. 5 November: Israeli and Palestinian tourism bureaus announce a plan to jointly market tourism to the region. 26 November: The PA announces it will boycott meetings of multilateral working groups (except those dealing with the refugee issue) to protest Israel's "lack of seriousness in implementing interim agreements." 29 December: Ezer Weiz-man becomes the first Israeli president to visit India, signing four bilateral trade and agricultural agreements and opening a model high-tech farm to be administered by Mashav. 1997 1 January: Six Palestinians are wounded when a deranged IDF soldier opens fire in Hebron. 15 January: Israel and the PA conclude the Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron; appended to the protocol are two additional documents: a "Note for the Record" listing outstanding obligations to be fulfilled by each side and a U.S. "Letter of Assurance" to Israel regarding terms of reference for further IDF redeployments. 16 January: By a vote of 87 to 17 (with 1 abstention), the Knesset endorses the Hebron agreement. 4 February: Seventy-three Israeli soldiers die when two IDF helicopters collide near the Lebanon border. 13 February: Netanyahu and Clinton meet in Washington, the first time since the Hebron agreement. 17 February: Israeli-Palestinian talks on implementing interim agreements resume in Jerusalem. 26 February: The Israeli cabinet approves a plan to build 6,500 housing units at the Har Homa district of eastern Jerusalem; Palestinian leaders warn that the start of construction could provoke renewed violence. 7 March: The United States vetoes a proposed UNSC resolution criticizing the Har Homa project. 9 March: Jordan's King Hussein sends a letter to Netanyahu expressing "distress" over the stalemate in negotiations with the Palestinians and questioning whether it is Netanyahu's "intent to destroy" the peace process. 13 March: Seven Israeli schoolgirls are killed when a deranged Jordanian soldier opens fire at Naharayim; King Hussein makes unprecedented condolence calls to the families of the victims. 18 March: Israeli bulldozers begin construction work at Har Homa. 31 March: Arab foreign ministers recommend that Arab countries cease normalizing relations with Israel and restore the economic boycott and that they suspend participation in multilateral peace talks to protest the absence of progress in bilateral talks. 24 April: The UNGA, meeting in a rare "emergency special session," adopts a resolution criticizing the Har Homa building project; Israel and the United States oppose the resolution as one sided, unnecessary, and detrimental to the peace process. July: Finance Minister Yaacov Ne'eman is appointed to head a committee comprised of representatives of various streams of Judaism (Ultra-Orthodox, Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform) set up to achieve a compromise on the "Who Is a Jew" controversy. 15 July: By a vote of 131 to 3 (Israel, the United States, and Micronesia), the UNGA condemns continued work at Har Homa and makes veiled threats to apply partial economic sanctions and take steps to isolate Israel at the UN. 22 September: Two staffers at the Israeli embassy in Amman, Jordan, are wounded in terrorist attack. 25 September: Khaled Mashaal, head of the Hamas political office in Jordan, is wounded in an assassination attempt in Amman; two Mossad agents carrying forged Canadian passports are arrested by Jordanian police. Jordanians react by temporarily suspending security cooperation. Israel acquiesces to King Hussein's demand to release the founder and spiritual leader of Hamas, Sheik Ahmed Yassin, and other Hamas activists. 1 October: Israel frees Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. 10 November: Israel and the Vatican sign an agreement granting special legal status to institutions of the Catholic Church in Israel. 18 November: Netanyahu and King Hussein meet in London to resume bilateral security cooperation after the "Mashaal Affair" and to coordinate a response to the Iraq-UN dispute over arms inspections. 25 November: Israeli and Jordanian navies hold joint search-and-rescue training exercises in the Gulf of Eilat. 4 December: In an open letter to his prime minister, Jordan's King Hussein criticizes Netanyahu for his "unending attempt to destroy the Oslo Pact." 1998 4 January: Defense Minister Yitzhak Mordechai declares Israel's readiness to negotiate an IDF withdrawal from southern Lebanon on the basis of UNSC Resolution 425 (1978). David Levy resigns as foreign minister and withdraws his Gesher faction from the governing coalition to protest the stalemate in the peace process and proposed budget cuts. 7 January: Israel, Turkey, and the United States hold joint naval search-and-rescue training exercises; "Reliant Mermaid" exercises are observed by the commander of the Jordanian navy. 16 January: In a meeting at the Vatican with Government Minister Moshe Katsav, Pope John Paul II expresses interest in visiting Israel. 20 January: Netanyahu meets with Clinton in Washington; Zevulun Hammer, leader of the National Religious Party and education minister and deputy prime minister, dies. 27-28 January: In meetings in Washington, Finance Minister Yaa-cov Ne'eman reaffirms the goal of reducing dependence on U.S. financial aid. 24 February: Mossad head Danny Yatom resigns. 4 March: The Knesset reelects Ezer Weizman to a second term as president of Israel; Weizman receives 63 votes to 49 for the Likud's Shaul Amor, with abstentions. 8-10 March: Government Ministers Ariel Sharon and Natan Sharansky make separate visits to Jordan, and Crown Prince Hassan makes the first visit by a Jordanian leader to Israel since the "Mashaal Affair." 18 March: Eighty-one U.S. senators sign a letter to President Clinton expressing concern about reported White House pressure on Israel to make unsafe concessions in negotiations with the PA. 9 October: Ariel Sharon is named foreign minister and Israel's chief negotiator of final-status agreements with the PA. 23 October: Netanyahu and Arafat conclude the Wye River Memorandum. 31 October: The United States and Israel sign a memorandum of agreement on strategic security cooperation (against the threat of nonconventional weapons of mass destruction and long-range ballistic missiles). 17 November: The Knesset ratifies the Wye River Memorandum by a vote of 75 to 19, with abstentions and 14 absent. 18 November: Foreign Minister Sharon and PA Minister Abu-Mazen (Mahmoud Abbas) formally launch final-status negotiations. 20 November: Israel redeploys from areas between Jenin and Nablus in the northern sector of the West Bank, implementing the first phase of the Wye River Memorandum. 29 November: The first operational Arrow antimissile missile system is transferred from Israel Aircraft Industries to the Defense Ministry's Homa ("Wall") project. 9 December: For the first time, the UNGA includes anti-Semitism in its definition of racism. 14 December: At a special meeting in Gaza, and in the presence of U.S. president William J. Clinton, the PNC ratifies changes to the covenant stipulated in Arafat's 22 January 1998 letter to Clinton. Israel calls the changes "satisfactory." 21 December: Faced with likely defections of key coalition partners in the Knesset no-confidence vote over his government's handling of the peace process, Netanyahu supports legislation to prepare for general elections. All-party agreement subsequently is reached, setting 17 May 1999 as a date for direct election of the prime minister and election of the 15th Knesset. 22 December: Dan Meridor quits Likud, announcing the intention to run for prime minister as head of a new centrist political party. This proposed party ultimately is subsumed within the new Center Party, headed by Yitzhak Mordechai. 28 December: Ze'ev Binyamin Begin quits Likud, announcing the intention to enter the race for prime minister as head of the New Herut (Herut Hahadasha) Party. This party subsequently is incorporated into new right-wing National Union coalition, with Begin as its candidate for prime minister. 1999 23 January: Prime Minister Netanyhau dismisses Defense Minister Yitzhak Mordechai. 25 March: Azmi (Ahmed) Bishara becomes the first Israeli Arab to declare his candidacy for prime minister. 15-16 May: On the eve of the general elections, Azmi Bishara, Yitzhak Mordechai, and Ze'ev Binyamin Begin withdraw from the prime ministerial race, creating a two-way contest between Benjamin Netanyahu and Ehud Barak. 17 May: Israel Labor Party/One Israel leader Ehud Barak defeats the Likud's Benjamin Netanyahu in the direct election for prime minister, receiving 56.1 percent of the popular vote (1,791,020) compared to 43.9 percent (1,402,474) for Netanyahu. In elections for the 15th Knesset, One Israel wins 26 seats, Likud 19, and Shas 17. 28 May: Wreckage of the submarine Dakar is located in the Mediterranean. June-July: Ehud Barak and Syria's president Hafez al-Assad exchange rare public compliments. 6 July: The Knesset approves Ehud Barak's government and policy guidelines, and he is sworn in as prime minister. Barak presents his 7-party, 75-member governing coalition and its program before the Knesset for ratification; in his inaugural speech as prime minister, Barak urges Israel's Arab neighbors to resume the pursuit of peace initiated by his mentor, Yitzhak Rabin. Labor member of the Knesset (MK) Avraham Burg is elected speaker of the 15th Knesset. 14-15 July: Turkish president Suleyman Demirel makes an official visit to Israel. 26 July: At the invitation of Knesset speaker Avraham Burg, Ahmad Qurie (Abu Ala), speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council, conducts an official visit to the Knesset. 5 August: MK Nawaf Massalha is appointed to the post of deputy foreign minister, the first Israeli Arab to hold that post. 30 August: Morocco renews the political contacts with Israel frozen during the Netanyahu years. 2 September: Ariel Sharon is elected leader of the Likud Party, defeating challengers Ehud Olmert and Meir Shitreet. In a plea bargain, Samuel Sheinbein admits committing premeditated murder in Maryland and is sentenced to 24 years in an Israeli prison. 4 September: Barak and Arafat sign an agreement at Sharm el-Sheikh to implement the outstanding elements of the October 1998 Wye River Memorandum. A target date for completing the final-status peace negotiations is set for September 2000, with a "framework agreement" scheduled for February 2000. 8 September: The cabinet approves the Sharm el-Sheikh accord by a vote of 19 for and 1 against (Housing Minster Yitzhak Levy), with 1 abstention (Interior Minister Natan Sharansky) and 4 ministers (all from Shas) absent. 9 September: The Knesset ratifies the Sharm el-Sheikh agreement by 54 to 23 vote, with 2 abstentions and with a number of coalition members, including Interior Minister Natan Sharansky, absent. 13 September: Foreign Minister David Levy and Palestinian negotiator Abu Mazen formally launch the final-status peace talks between Israel and the Palestinians. 28 October: Mauritania establishes diplomatic ties with Israel, becoming the third Arab country (after Egypt and Jordan) to do so. 1 November: In a test flight, the Arrow antimissile missile successfully finds and destroys a simulated Scud missile in midflight. 8 November: Israel and the PLO begin permanent status talks in earnest in Ramallah. December: Israel, Turkey, and the United States participate in "Reliant Mermaid 1999" search-and-rescue naval exercises in the eastern Mediterranean. Evidence is uncovered of President Ezer Weizman's having received substantial financial gifts; Weizman resists growing pressure to resign. 8 December: President Clinton announces the agreement of Israel and Syria to resume formal talks. 15-16 December: Barak and Syrian foreign minister Farouk al-Sharaa meet with Clinton in Washington. 21 December: Barak and Foreign Minister David Levy meet with Arafat in Ramallah in an attempt to reconcile differences over a further 5 percent redeployment. 29 December: Israel releases 26 Palestinian security prisoners as a Ramadan goodwill gesture. 2000 3-10 January: Barak and Syria's Sharaa and their respective delegations meet with U.S. mediators in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. 20 January: Israel's attorney general orders a criminal investigation of President Ezer Weizman over alleged financial improprieties. Weizman subsequently addresses the nation: "I do not intend to resign." 27 January: A criminal investigation is ordered into the fund-raising activities of Barak's One Israel coalition in the 1999 election campaign; simultaneous investigations are launched into the fund-raising activities of four other political parties. Barak and Justice Minister Yossi Beilin subsequently announce the formation of a public committee headed by retired Supreme Court justice Dov Levin to examine campaign financing laws in Israel. 1 February: The multilateral track of the Middle East peace process negotiations is revived at a conference in Moscow after a three-year hiatus; Syria and Lebanon continue to boycott the multilateral process. 3 February: Barak and Foreign Minister David Levy meet with Arafat at the Erez crossing in attempt to resolve differences over a third redeployment; Palestinians declare a "major crisis" in the negotiations, blocking the completion of the Framework Agreement on a permanent settlement by the 13 February 2000 target date. 21 March: The pope begins a visit to Israel. May: The IDF completes a withdrawal from the south Lebanon security zone. 10 July: President Ezer Weizman resigns. 11 July: The Camp David II Summit of Clinton, Barak, and Arafat convenes. 25 July: The Camp David Summit ends without an agreement. 31 July: Moshe Katsav is elected president. 28 September: Sharon visits the Temple Mount. Clashes occur between Palestinians and Israeli security and spread in the territories. The second Palestinian Intifada (al-Aksa Intifada) begins. 16 October: An international crisis summit convenes at Sharm el-Sheikh to end the violence. 9 December: Barak announces he will resign as prime minister. 27 January: The Taba talks between Israel and the Palestinians end without an agreement; both sides say they have never been closer to peace. 6 February: Sharon is elected prime minister over Barak by a landslide of 62.6 percent to 37.2 percent. 7 March: The Sharon government is sworn in. 17 October: Tourism Minister Rehavam Ze'evi is assassinated in Jerusalem by the PFLP. 13 December: Israel declares Arafat "irrelevant" in the struggle against terrorism. 3 January: The Karine A is intercepted carrying arms to Gaza. 12 March: By a vote of 14 for and 0 against, with 1 abstention (Syria), the UNSC adopts Resolution 1397, articulating for the first time the council's "vision of a region where two States, Israel and Palestine, live side by side within secure and recognized borders"; the resolution also demands an "immediate cessation of all acts of violence, including all forms of terror, provocation, incitement and destruction" and affirms the council's support for an immediate and unconditional cease-fire as called for in the Mitchell Report and Tenet work plan. 27-28 March: Saudi Arabia formally presents a peace proposal at an Arab League summit meeting in Beirut. 31 March: Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and the cabinet declare "war against terrorism" and label Arafat as the "enemy of the entire free world." April-June: Operations Defensive Shield and Determined Path. The reoccupation of Palestinian areas by the IDF. 24 June: U.S. president George W. Bush articulates a vision of Israel-Palestine peace and a two-state solution. 30 October: Labor leaves the national unity coalition. 31 October: Shaul Mofaz becomes minister of defense. 16 January: NASA launches the space shuttle Columbia on mission STS-107; the first Israeli astronaut, Ilan Ramon, is onboard. 1 February: The space shuttle disintegrates on reentry to earth. All onboard are killed. 29 April: Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) and his cabinet are approved by the Palestinian legislature. 30 April: The Quartet Roadmap is presented to Sharon and to Abu Mazen. 4 June: The Middle East Peace Summit at Aqaba, Jordan. President Bush meets with King Abdullah of Jordan and Prime Ministers Sharon and Abu Mazen. 14 April: President Bush gives a letter to Sharon implying U.S. support for a permanent settlement presence beyond the Green Line and for the "right of return" solely to an independent Palestinian state. 25 August: Gal Friedman wins first Olympic gold medal for Israel. 28 October: Sharon's disengagement plan passes a vote in the Knesset. 11 November: Yasser Arafat dies. 13 March: The Israeli government formally approves the appointment of Air Force major general Dan Halutz as chief of staff of the IDF. 11 April: Sharon meets with President Bush at his ranch in Crawford, Texas. 15 August: Israel begins withdrawing settlers and troops from the Gaza Strip. 22 August: Israel completes the evacuation of all Israeli civilians from the Israeli communities in the Gaza Strip in accordance with the implementation of the Disengagement Plan Law of 2005. 23 August: Israel completes disengagement in West Bank. 11 October: Robert J. Aumann is announced as joint recipient of the Nobel Prize in economics. 10 November: Amir Peretz is elected head of the Labor Party. 21 November: Ariel Sharon announces his departure from the Likud Party and the formation of a new centrist political party (called Kadima). 18 December: Ariel Sharon is hospitalized after a mild stroke. 4 January: Ariel Sharon suffers a massive cerebral hemorrhage. 18 January: Tzipi Livni is appointed foreign minister. 25 January: Palestinian parliamentary elections. Hamas wins. 28 March: The Israeli election for the 17th Knesset. 29 March: The Kadima Party emerges from the Knesset election with 28 seats. May: Ehud Olmert presents a government to the Knesset. 25 June: IDF soldier Gilad Shalit is kidnapped by Hamas-affiliated Palestinians. 28 June: IDF forces enter the southern Gaza Strip. 12 July: Hezbollah kidnaps two Israeli soldiers in a cross-border raid. 13 July: Israel begins bombing the runways at Beirut's airport and imposes a naval blockade of Lebanon. Hezbollah rocket attacks strike the northern Israeli city of Haifa. 22 July: Israeli ground troops enter Lebanon. 11 August: The UNSC approves a resolution calling for a "full cessation of hostilities." 14 August: A ceasefire takes effect. Israel-Hezbollah fighting ends. 18 September: The Winograd Commission begins its investigation into the war in Lebanon. 1 October: Israel completes a military withdrawal from Lebanon. 23 December: Olmert and Abbas meet formally. 17 January: Lieutenant General Dan Halutz resigns as chief of staff. 22 January: General Gabi Ashkenazi is appointed as new chief of staff of the IDF. 23 January: Israel's attorney general, Menachem Mazuz, decides to charge President Moshe Katzav with rape, sexual harassment, obstruction of justice, fraud, and breach of trust. 29 January: Labor MK Raleb Majadele is sworn in as the first Muslim Israeli cabinet minister. A Palestinian suicide terrorist bomber strikes in Eilat for the first time. Palestinian Islamic Jihad and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claim joint responsibility for the attack. 31 January: President Katsav takes a temporary leave of absence from office. Former justice minister Haim Ramon is found guilty of indecent behavior by a Tel Aviv magistrate's court. 4 February: Israel's cabinet approves the appointment of Gabi Ashkenazi as IDF chief of staff. June: Hamas violently seizes control of the Gaza Strip from Fatah. 13 June: Shimon Peres is elected Israel's ninth president. 15 July: Peres takes office as Israel's ninth president. 6 August: Olmert and Abbas meet in Jericho on the West Bank to continue talks. 19 September: Israel's security cabinet unanimously determines "Hamas is a terrorist organization that has taken control of the Gaza Strip and turned it into hostile territory." 27 November: An international conference is convened at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, at the invitation of the United States. The conference's purposes are to commence a process of direct negotiations leading to the realization of Israeli-Palestinian peace based on the two-state solution envisioned by U.S. president George W. Bush and in the Quartet Roadmap and to coordinate international support for efforts to construct the institutions and culture for an independent and democratic Palestinian state. 2008 9-11 January: George W. Bush makes his first visit to Israel since becoming president of the United States. He meets with Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and with Palestinian Authority president Mah-moud Abbas in Ramallah and expresses confidence that an Israeli-Palestinian agreement can be reached before he leaves office at the end of 2009. 16 January: Minister of strategic affairs in the prime minister's office and Deputy Prime Minister Avigdor Lieberman resigns from the cabinet and the eleven-member Israel Beiteinu (Israel Our Home) party withdraws its support for the Kadima-led coalition government, in a dispute over Prime Minister Ehud Olmert's strategy for negotiating with the Palestinians. 21 January: Israel launches a sophisticated Israeli-built reconnaissance satellite atop an Indian missile from a launch site in India. 30 January: Winograd Committee issues its final report calling the Second Lebanon War (2006) a "serious missed opportunity" for Israel. It lays responsibility mainly with the IDF command. While finding failings with their management of the war, it exonerates Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and then Defense Minister Amir Peretz on the decision to approve the IDF plan for a controversial ground operation against Hezbollah. 4 February: One Israeli civilian is killed and eleven others are wounded in a suicide bombing in the southern town of Dimona; a second suicide bomber is killed by police before he can set off his explosives belt. Several Palestinian groups claim responsibility for the first major terrorist attack inside Israel in over a year. 26 February: Supreme Court of Israel rejects calling for repeal of plea bargain reached by disgraced formerr president Moshe Katzav on sexual harassment charges. 27 February: Former Likud MK Omri Sharon begins 7-month prison term for fraud. February-March: IDF initiates Operation Warm Winter against missile bases in the Gaza Strip. 6 March: Eight students killed and dozens of others wounded by a lone gunman in attack at the Mercaz Harav yeshiva in Jerusalem.

Historical Dictionary of Israel. .

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